تأثیر مالچ مواد آلی بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی سورگوم علوفه‌ای (Sorghum bicolor L.) در پاسخ به رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای فیزیولوژی دام و طیور، گروه علوم طیور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد مالچ حاصل از باقی‌مانده مواد آلی موجود در پهنه جنگل، ‌مزارع برنج، باغات چای و بادام زمینی و کمبود آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات مختلف مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی سورگوم علوفه‌ای در شرایط مزرعه انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی سال 1397 در مزارع منتخب تحقیقاتی منطقه دیلمان شهرستان سیاهکل زیر نظر گروه زراعت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس و کارشناسان ترویج جهادکشاورزی لاهیجان اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل سه سطح تنش کمبود آب بر اساس آبیاری 15، 30 و 45 درصد کم‌تر از ظرفیت زراعی و شش سطح مالچ آلی شامل بدون مالچ، مالچ کلش برنج، مالچ پوسته شلتوک برنج، مالچ پیله بادام‌زمینی، مالچ ضایعات چای و مالچ خاکبرگ بودند. نتایج نشان داد در شرایط تنش متوسط، تیمارهای مالچ کلش برنج و پوسته شلتوک برنج، در عملکرد علوفه تر و سرعت فتوسنتز گیاه به‌ترتیب 39/13 و 26/65 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش نشان داد. همچنین، در شرایط تنش شدید، مالچ‌های کلش برنج، پوسته شلتوک برنج و پیله بادام زمینی، میزان بهره‌وری اقتصادی آب و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز را به‌ترتیب 63/48، 55/21 و 46/40 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. کاربرد مالچ مواد آلی به‌ویژه کلش برنج، پوسته شلتوک برنج و پیله بادام زمینی به‌ترتیب موجب جلوگیری از کاهش 6/08، 13/70و 16/75 درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد تحت شرایط تنش متوسط شد. به‌طورکلی، مالچ مواد آلی در افزایش عملکرد دانه و علوفه تر، سرعت فتوسنتر، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان‌ها و بهره‌وری آب و همچنین کاهش میزان علف‌های هرز مزرعه در شرایط تنش از توانایی بالایی برخوردار بوده و سهم بسزایی در بهبود مقاومت به خشکی در گیاه سورگوم علوفه‌ای دارد. در نهایت، استفاده از مالچ مواد آلی در کشت سورگوم علوفه‌ای تحت شرایط تنش خشکی فصلی توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of organic mulch on morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of forage sorghum (Sorghum bocolor L.) in response to different irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Ghanbari 1
  • Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli 2
  • Zeinab Zanganeh 3
  • Kamran Mansour Ghanaei-Pashaki 4
1 Ph.D. Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student of Livestock and poultry physiology, Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. Candidat, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mulch application from organic matter residues in forest area, rice fields, tea and peanut orchards and irrigation water deficit on different morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of forage sorghum in field conditions. This research was carried out as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications in selected research farms in Deilman area of Siahkal city under the supervision of Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Agronomy and Lahijan Agricultural Jihad Extension Experts in 2018. Factorial combinations of three levels of water deficit stress 15%, 30% and 45% of less than FC and six organic mulch, no mulch, rice straw mulch, paddy rice husk mulch, peanut shell mulch, tea waste mulch and leaf mold mulch were used. The results showed that under moderate stress conditions, rice straw mulch and rice paddy husk treatment showed the highest forage yield and plant photosynthesis rate of 39.13 and 26.65%, respectively, compared to the control treatment. Also, under conditions of severe stress, rice straw mulch, rice paddy husk and peanut shell mulch increased the economic efficiency of water and dry weight of weeds by 63.48, 55.21 and 46.40%, respectively, compared to the control. Application of organic matter mulch, especially rice straw, rice paddy husk and peanut shell mulch, prevented a reduction of 6.08, 13.70 and 16.75% of grain yield compared to the control under moderate stress conditions, respectively. In general, organic matter mulch has a high ability to increase grain and forage yield, photosynthetic rate, antioxidant activity and economic efficiency of water, as well as reduce field weeds in stress conditions and make a significant contribution to improving drought resistance in Forage Sorghum. Finally, the use of organic matter mulch in the cultivation of forage sorghum under seasonal drought stress conditions is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anti-oxidant
  • Sorghum bicolor
  • Water deficit
  • Water productivity
  • weed
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