عنوان مقاله [English]
Suitable plants for emergency feed production must have special conditions and characteristics, the most important of which are the speed of emergence and high growth rate, as well as the potential to produce forage with the right quantity and quality in the shortest possible time. Millet is one of the plants that due to its short growth period and relative resistance to drought can be used in most parts of the country that are difficult in terms of water supply or the length of the period suitable for plant growth and development and play an important role in food production for livestock and Poultry. Foxtail and common millets are the most important cultivars of this species in Iran. foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) in South Khorasan province has been known as Gavars and cultivated since ancient times. Dehydration, optimal use of soil moisture, considerable tillering and compensation for possible damages, as well as its dual use as green forage and seeds are its prominent features. Harvest time and appropriate cultivar are the important factors in crop management and will lead to access the maximum quantitative and qualitative yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the forage performance of millet lines and cultivars at different times in Birjand region.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted in 2020 in Birjand Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, located at 20 km from Birjand-Khosf road with a latitude of 32 degrees and 53 minutes north and a longitude of 59 degrees and 13 minutes east and an altitude of 1480 meters above the sea level. The experiment was done as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included harvest time as the main factor in four levels (50, 40, 60 and 70 days after emergence) and lines and cultivars including (promising lines KFM93-17, KFM5 and Bastan cultivar) as sub-factors. Each plot consisted of four lines of wich 50 cm between rows and 5 m long. Planting operations were carried out in early July. Harvesting was performed in different plots based on the relevant experimental treatments at 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after emergency. In order to determine some morphological traits of the plant, 5 plants from each subplot were randomly selected and plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem diameter and number of tillers per plant were measured. In order to determine the yield components of including stem and leaf weight and leaf-to-stem ratio, 5 plants were harvested from the middle parts of each plot above the ground and transferred to the laboratory. To determine forage yield, plants were harvested from two rows in the middle of each plot by removing 50 cm from the beginning and end of all rows and after weighing, forage yield was calculated. In order to determine the qualitative yield, first the amount of forage nitrogen was measured by Kjeldal method and then the amount of crude protein and the yield of protein were calculated. After data collecting and performing some necessary calculations, statistical analysis was done using SAS software. To compare the means, Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% probability level was used and the required shapes were plotted by Excel software.
Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of harvest time on green forage yield was significant at the 1% probability level, but the effect of cultivar and the interaction of harvest time and cultivar on this trait was not significant. Delay in harvest increased green forage yield. The delay from 40 to 60 and 70 days after emergency increased the yield of green forage by 2.3 and 2.5 times, respectively. Delay in harvest increased dry forage yield. The delay from 40 to 60 and 70 days increased the yield of green fodder by 2.6 and 3.6 times, respectively.
In KFM5 line, the highest percentage of protein was obtained from harvest time at 50 days after emergence (15.4%) and there was no statistically significant difference between harvest time of 40 and 60 days after emergence, but with delay in harvest to 70 days protein percentage Reduced.
The results of this study showed that delay in harvest increased the yield and yield components of forage and forage protein yield in foxtail millet. Based on the results of this study, for the production of emergency fodder from foxtail millet in Birjand region, the cultivar Bastan can be used and harvested in 60 days after emergence.