عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The species of Calotropis procera Aiton is the valuable and effective medicinal plant that the extract of this plant is used to treatment of carminative, indigestion, cancer, and convulsant. This species has natural fragmented habitat in the southern regions of Iran, especially near the coasts of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea, in the arid and semiarid areas of Sistan and Baluchistan, Khuzestan, Bushehr, and Hormozgan. The symbiosis of plants with mycorrhiza can be lead to improve of the root development and will affect on the absorption of water and nutrients. Aim of this study was investigate the effects of symbiosis between C. procera Aiton. with three different species of mycorrhizal on some phytochemical and antioxidant activity, and content of potassium, phosphorus, and sodium in shoots of C. procera Aiton.
Material and methods: This research was carried out in a completely randomized design with three treatments of inoculation with different mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradicese, Glomus fasiculatum, and Glomus mosseae) and control (without inoculation) with three replicate done in pot condition. Investigated indices include; chlorophyll a and b, Carotenoid, phenol, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, protein, and concentration of potassium, phosphorus, and sodium in shoots.
Results and discussion: The results of variance analysis were shown significant effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on all investigated indices (P ≤ 0.01). Also, means comparison shows a significant difference between the effects of different mycorrhiza species. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoid were obtained in symbiosis with G. mossae, and the highest content of chlorophyll b existed in symbiosis with G. fasiculatum and G. intraradicese. In this regard, it has been found that mycorrhizal symbiosis leads to an increase in water absorption, and an improvement in the absorption of nutrients by the plant, thereby leading to an increase in chlorophyll synthesis enzymes activity. symbiosis of G. fasiculatum had the highest effects on increasing phenol and antioxidant activity. increase in antioxidant activity leading to strong suppression of reactive oxygen species, which ultimately increases the remedial capability of C. procera Aiton. The highest amount of flavonoid was observed in the condition of symbiosis with G. intraradicese and G. fasiculatum, and the highest content of protein was observed in condition of symbiosis with G. fasiculatum and G. mossae. Symbiosis with the G. intraradicese significantly increased the concentration of potassium and phosphorus in shoots of C. procera Aiton, while symbiosis with G. mossae causes to a significant increase in sodium concentration. Generally, the results of the current study were shown that symbiosis with G. fasiculatum and G. intraradicese are more useful than symbiosis with G. mossae. The symbiosis of plants with mycorrhiza fungi increases the volume and length of their roots, as a result of which the roots have more contact with the soil, and the amount of water and nutrient absorption from the soil increases.
Conclusion: results of the current study demonstrate that the phytochemical, antioxidant activity, and concentration of potassium and phosphorus and sodium have differed among extract and shoots related to symbiosis of C. procera Aiton and species of fungi. And symbiosis with G. fasiculatum had the greatest effect in increasing the production of secondary metabolites.