عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Environmental stress limits the yield of crops, and as a result, a significant difference is observed between the potential yield and the actual yield of crops. Due to their resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought stress and salt stress, quinoa plants are extremely valuable. In addition, due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers, groundwater contamination, and soil salinization, nano fertilizers are highly efficient and effective.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Bahoklat Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Station in the city of Chabahar during the two crop years 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 using a split factorial experiment with a randomized complete block design and three replications. Irrigation at three levels (control every 14 days (regional custom), 21 and 28 days) was the main factor, while three levels of nano fertilizer (no fertilizer (control), silicon chelate nano fertilizer, and complete micro-chelate nano fertilizer at a rate of two parts Per thousand) and two cultivars of quinoa (Q12 and Q26) were sub-factors.
Results and Discussion: The results of the comparison of means indicated that the use of nano-fertilizers under full irrigation conditions increased the efficiency of element uptake and, consequently, the production and transfer of photosynthetic material to grain and grain yield components through the availability of microelements. Increased number of seeds per spike (15.6), weight per 1000 seeds (2.44 g), and grain yield (923 kg.ha-1).
It appears that in the treatment of watering once every 21 and 28 days, the reduction of irrigation through the reduction of leaf area index and disturbance in the absorption and transfer of nutrients has decreased the supply of cultivated materials and caused alterations in yield components and a decrease in grain yield. There are numerous reasons why insufficient watering inhibits the development of flower stem cells. Due to the loss of pollen grains, reducing irrigation during the pollination and fertilization stages reduces the number of seeds. Typically, the number of seeds on a spike determines the capacity of a plant's reservoirs. any factor that increases the number of seeds also increases the yield.
The increase in yield during the second year of the experiment at the full irrigation level is attributable to the increase in yield components such as the number of spikes per plant and the weight of one thousand seeds at this irrigation level. It may be possible to attribute the increase in the weight of 1,000 seeds in the second year of the experiment to the increased efficiency of water consumption brought about by the use of complete micro nano chelate fertilizer, through the provision of microelements and the enhancement of the production and transfer of photosynthetic materials to the grain and grain yield components.
Under the conditions of using a complete micro nano-chelate fertilizer, the greatest weight per thousand seeds was achieved. It can be stated that the amount of seeding is determined by the photosynthetic materials stored during the flowering period, and that the lack of nutrients reduces the weight of the seeds by reducing the photosynthetic materials.
Quinoa cultivar Q12 yielded the greatest number of seeds per spike. This can be attributed to the prolonged flowering stage. The number of seeds in a spike is primarily determined by the genetic potential of the plant before the spike emerges. After the seeds have been fertilized, the continued growth and development of the plant depends on the delivery of photosynthetic materials from the source that produces the grown materials. Due to the availability of photosynthetic materials during the flowering stage, it is evident that more flowers were inoculated in the quinoa variety Q12, resulting in more seeds.
It appears that the higher seed yield of quinoa variety Q12 compared to quinoa variety Q26 is the result of a greater number of seed yield components in this variety. Given that the weight of one thousand seeds is one of the most influential factors in grain yield, this trait has the potential to increase the grain yield of the Q12 quinoa variety. By increasing the green area of the plant and lengthening the seed filling period, the Q12 quinoa cultivar was able to transfer more photosynthetic substances to the seeds and increase the weight of 1,000 seeds.
Conclusion: To achieve maximum grain yield, it is recommended that the quinoa Q12 cultivar be grown under irrigation conditions every 14 days (regional custom) and with the addition of a complete micro-nano-chelate fertilizer.