بررسی برخی از شاخص‌های رشد دو رقم چغندرقند پاییزه (Beta vulgaris L.) تحت تأثیر آرایش کاشت، سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن با محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندر قند، ایران


کاشت پاییزه چغندرقند کارایی مصرف آب و مزیت‌های زراعی بیشتری نسبت به کاشت بهاره دارد. به منظور بررسی امکان کاشت پاییزه دو رقم چغندر قند و مقایسه عملکرد ریشه آنها پژوهشی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان طی دو سال زراعی (98-97 و 97-1396) انجام شد. این پژوهش در قالب طرح اسپلیت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار اجراء گردید. فاکتور اصلی دارای دو سطح و شامل آرایش کاشت 50-50 (P1)، 50-25 (P2)، و فاکتورهای فرعی شامل دو رقم چغندر قند پاییزه (روزاگولد و چیمنه) و چهار سطح کود (F1: کاربرد 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن (شاهد)، F2: کاربرد 270 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی، F3: کاربرد 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی، F4: کاربرد 210 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی) با محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی به میزان 5 در هزار می‌باشد. رقم روزاگولد با تیمار F2 به طور معنی‌داری (P<0.01) باعث افزایش نرخ فعال فتوسنتز گردید. بیشترین میزان هدایت روزنه‎ای در آرایش کاشت P1 با رقم روزاگولد مشاهده گردید. بالاترین میزان CGR (16 گرم/ مترمربع/ روز) و عملکرد ریشه (98/70 تن در هکتار) از آرایش کاشت P1، رقم روزاگولد و سطح کود F2 به دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده می‌توان اظهار داشت، محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی توان جبران کاهش مصرف نیتروژن به میزان 10 درصد، بدون کاهش عملکرد و کیفیت چغندر قند پاییزه را دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of some growth indices of two cultivars of autumn sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under the influence of planting method, different levels of nitrogen fertilizer by foliar application of zinc sulfate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amene Haqshenas 1
  • Khosro Azizi 2
  • Soraya Ghasemi 3
  • Farhad Nazarian Firouzabadi 2
1 PHD student of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Autumn planting of sugar beet has more water use efficiency and agricultural advantages than spring planting. In order to investigate the possibility of autumn planting of two sugar beet cultivars and compare their root yield, a study was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture of Lorestan University during two cropping years (2017-2018 and 2018-2019). This study was conducted in the form of a split factorial design with three replications. The main factor has two levels and includes planting method 50-50 (P1), 25-50 (P2), and the sub-factors including two varieties of autumn sugar beet (Rosagold and Chimene) and four levels of fertilizer (F1: application of 300 kg.ha-1 nitrogen (Control), F2: application of 270 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and foliar application of zinc sulfate, F3: application of 240 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and foliar application of zinc sulfate, F4: application of 210 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and foliar application of zinc sulfate in the amount of 5 per thousand. Rosagold cultivar with F2 treatment significantly (p<0.01) increased the photosynthesis active rate. The highest amount of stomatal conductance was observed in P1 planting arrangement with Rosagold cultivar. The highest CGR (16 g.m-2.day-1) and root yield (98.70 t.ha-1) were obtained from P1 planting arrangement, Rosagold cultivar and F2 fertilizer level. According to the obtained results, it can be stated that zinc sulfate foliar application has the ability to compensate for the reduction of nitrogen consumption by 10%, without reducing the yield and quality of autumn sugar beet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chimene
  • growth degree day
  • Leaf area index
  • Rosagold
Abdollahian, M. 1995. Study of sugar beet growth pattern in Mashhad area. Journal of Sugar Beet, 10: 35-42. (In Persian).
Abdollahian Noghabi, M., Sheykholeslami, R. and Babaee, B. 2005. Technical terms and meanings of technological quantity and quality of sugarbeet. Journal of Sugar Beet, 21: 101-104. (In Persian).
Abuzar, M., Sadozai, G., Baloch, M., Baloch, A., Shah, I., Javaid, T. and Hussain, N. 2011. Effect of plant population densities on yield of maize. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 21: 692-695.
Adiloglu, A. and Adiloglu, S. 2005. An investigation on nutritional problems of hazelnut grown on acid soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36: 2219-2226.
Arif, M., Dashora, L., Choudhary, J., Kadam, S. and Mohsin, M. 2019. Effect of varieties and nutrient management on quality and zinc biofortification of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 89: 104-108.
Ashraf Mansoori, G.R. and Joukar, L. 2010. Effect of planting pattern on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in temperate regions of Fars province. Journal of Sugar Beet, 25: 141-152. (In Persian).
Asif, M., Tunc, C.E., Yazici, M.A., Tutus, Y., Rehman, R., Rehman, A. and Ozturk, L. 2019. Effect of predicted climate change on growth and yield performance of wheat under varied nitrogen and zinc supply. Plant and Soil, 434: 231-244.
Attia, K.K. and Abdel-Motagally, F. 2015. Influence of potassium fertilization and foliar application of zinc on sugar beet plants grown on a calcareous sandy soil. Assiut Journal Agricultural Sciences, 46:1-14.
Barłóg, P., Nowacka, A. and Błaszyk, R. 2016. Effect of zinc band application on sugar beet yield, quality and nutrient uptake. Plant, Soil and Environment, 62: 30-35.
Barzali, M., Tahmasbi, Z., Ghalavand, A. and Tavakol Afshari, R. 2004. Evaluation the morphological and Physiological characteristics assciated with early vigour in four cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. Iranian Society of Crops and Plant Breeding Science, 6: 80-100. (In Persian).
Bassi, D., Menossi, M. and Mattiello, L. 2018. Nitrogen supply influences photosynthesis establishment along the sugarcane leaf. Scientific Reports, 8:1-13.
Behdani, M.A. 2011. Principles of Cultivation. of AYJ, Press, Iran. (In Persian).
Bonhomme, R. 2000. Bases and limits to using ‘degree. day’units. European Journal of Agronomy, 13: 1-10.
Cakmak, I., Kalaycı, M., Ekiz, H., Braun, H., Kılınç, Y. and Yılmaz, A. 1999. Zinc deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: a NATO-science for stability project. Field Crops Research, 60: 175-188.
Cao, M., Li, Y. and Du, H. 2019. Effects of spraying zinc fertilizer on the physiological and photosynthetic characteristics of millet plants (Setaria Italica L.) at different growth stages. Applied Ecology & Environmental Research, 17: 8121-8138.
Carter, J., Kemper, W. and Traveller, D. 1985. yield and quality as affected by early and late fall and spring harvest of sugarbeets. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, 23: 8-27.
De Koeijer, T., De Buck, A., Wossink, G., Oenema, J., Renkema, J. and Struik, P. 2003. Annual variation in weather: its implications for sustainability in the case of optimising nitrogen input in sugar beet. European Journal of Agronomy, 19: 251-264.
Dhyani, K., Ansari, M.W., Rao, Y.R., Verma, R.S., Shukla, A. and Tuteja, N. 2013. Comparative physiological response of wheat genotypes under terminal heat stress. Plant signaling & behavior 8:e24564.

Dihim Fard, R. and Nazari, S. 2015. Effect of nitrogen application on quantitative and qualitative of sugar beet cultivars. Journal of Plant Production Research, 22: 71-93. (In Persian).

Dordas, C.A. and Sioulas, C. 2008. Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27:75-85.
Draycott, A.P. and Christenson, D.R. 2003. Nutrients for sugar beet production: Soil-plant relationships: Cabi.
Dutton, J. and Huijbregts, T. 2006. Root quality and processing. In book Sugar beet, pp: 409-442.
Emadi, M.S., Hassibi, P. and Azimi, A.R. 2015. Effect of putresine and nutrients foliar application on some physiological characters of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread cultivars in Ahvaz. Journal of Plant Productions (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 37: 107-118. (In Persian).
Fageria, N., Baligar, V. and Clark, R. 2002. Micronutrients in crop production. Advances in Agronomy. 77: 185-268.
Flexas, J., Gulías, J., Jonasson, S., Medrano, H. and Mus, M. 2001. Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L. Acta Oecologica, 22(1): 33-43.
Gardner, F.P., Pearce, R.B. and Mitchell, R.L. 1991. Physiological of Crop Plants. Iowa State University Press, USA: 186-208.
Gattanach, A. and Faning, C. 1993. Fertilizer Sugar beet. North Dokota State University” NDSU Extension Service, Available on the http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/plantsci/soilfert/sf714w.htm

Ghasemi, S., Sadeghzade Hemayati, S., Taleghani, D., Siavashi, K. and Hosseinpour, M. 2020. Determination of the proper planting date and harvest of commercial sugar beet cultivars in autumn cultivation in Ilam province. Journal of Sugar Beet, 36: 15-25. (In Persian).

Gobarah, M.E., Tawfik, M., Zaghloul, S.M. and Amin, G.A. 2014. Effect of combined application of different micronutrients on productivity and quality of sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris L.). International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 3: 589-598.
Gonzalez, D., Almendros, P., Obrador, A. and Alvarez, J.M. 2019. Zinc application in conjunction with urea as a fertilization strategy for improving both nitrogen use efficiency and the zinc biofortification of barley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99: 4445-4451.
Goudarzi, H., Kasraei, P. and Zand, B. 2014. Effect of different iron and zinc concentrations on yield and yield components of maize. Crop Production Research, 6: 49-61. (In Persian).
Hafeez, B., Khanif, Y. and Saleem, M. 2013. Role of zinc in plant nutrition-a review. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 50: 374-391.
Heldt, HW. 2005. Plant biochemistry. 3rd edition, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego.
Hoffmann, C. 2005. Changes in N composition of sugar beet varieties in response to increasing N supply. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 191: 138-145
Holen, C. and Dexter, A. 1996. A growing degree day equation for early sugarbeet leaf stages. Sugar Beet Research and Extension Reports, 29: 152-157.
Hooshmandi, B. 2015. Evaluation some morphophysiological indices and yield of bread wheat cultivars. Crop Physiology Journal, 7: 121-134. (In Persian).
Hopkins, W.G. 1999. Introduction to plant physiology. John Wiley and Sons.
Hundal, S., Singh, R. and Dhaliwal, L. 1997. Agro-climatic indices for predicting phenology of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Punjab. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67: 265-268.
Ishimaru, Y., Suzuki, M., Kobayashi, T., Takahashi, M., Nakanishi, H., Mori, S. and Nishizawa, N.K. 2005. OsZIP4, a novel zinc-regulated zinc transporter in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56(422): 3207-3214.
Jalilian, A., Mazaheri, D., Tavakkol Afshari, R., Rahimian, H., Abdolahian, M. and Gohari, J. 2005. Estimation of base temperature and the investigation of germination and field emergence trend of monogerm sugar beet under various temperatures. Journal of Sugar Beet, 20: 97-112. (In Persian).
Javaheri, M., Nadi, M. and Najafi nezhad, H. 2020. Use of agro-climatic zoning in determining zoning of determining the appropriate growth period, planting date and harvesting date of autumn sowing of sugar beet in Kerman province. Plant Ecophysiology, 12: 148-161. (In Persian).
Javaheri, M., Najafinezhad, H. and Azad, S.F. 2006. Study of autumn sowing of sugar beet in Orzouiee area (Kerman province). Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi, 19: 85-93. (In Persian).
Javaheri, S., Abdollahian-Noghabi, M., Kashani, A., Habibi, D. and Noshad, H. 2011. Determine relationship of leaf chlorophyll concentration and yeild using chlorophyll meter in sugar beet. New Finding in Agriculture, 5: 355-365. (In Persian)
Jia, Y. and Gray, V. 2003. Interrelationships between nitrogen supply and photosynthetic parameters in Vicia faba L. Photosynthetica, 41(4): 605-610.
Kamaei, H., Eisvand, H.R., Daneshvar, M. and Nazarian-Firouzabadi, F. 2019. effect of potassium and zinc foliar application on growth physiological indices, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and yield of two bread wheat cultivars under late planting date. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 17: 441-455. (In Persian).
Karimi, M. and Siddique, K. 1991. Crop growth and relative growth rates of old and modern wheat cultivars. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 42: 13-20.
Kenter, C., Hoffmann, C.M. and Märländer, B. 2006. Effects of weather variables on sugar beet yield development (Beta vulgaris L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 24: 62-69.
Khan, M., Fuller, M. and Baloch, F. 2008. Effect of soil applied zinc sulphate on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown on a calcareous soil in Pakistan. Cereal Research Communications, 36: 571-582.
Khayamim, S., Mazaheri, D., Banayan, M., Guhari, J. and Jahansuz, M.R. 2002. Determination of sugar beet extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency at different plant density and nitrogen use levels. Sugar Beet Journal, 18: 51-66. (In Persian).
Khayamim, S., Jahadakbar, M.R., Noshad, H., Rozbeh, F. and Zavieh mavadat, L. 2014. Effect of salt stress on photosynthetic properties of sugar beet under green house and field conditions. Journal of Sugar Beet, 30(1): 59-73. (In Persian).
Khodshenas, M.A., Ghadbeiklou, J. and Dadivar, M. 2016. The effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on nitrogen uptake of silage corn and residual soil nitrate. Water and Soil, 29: 1640-1650. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A.R. and Banayan aval, M. 1994. Crop yield physiology (translation). University Jihad Publications Ferdowsi University of Mshhad. (In Persian) .
Ma, B., Dwyer, L.M. and Gregorich, E.G. 1999. Soil nitrogen amendment effects on nitrogen uptake and grain yield of maize. Agronomy Journal, 91: 650-656.
Mahfouz, H., Ali, A.M.M., Megawer, E.A. and Mahmoud, A.S. 2015. Response of growth parameters, forage quality and yield of dual-purpose sorghum to re-growth and different levels of FYM and N fertilizers in new reclaimed soil. International Journal Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 4: 762-782.
Marschner, H. 1995a. Mineral nutrition of higher plants 2nd edition. Academic, Great Britain
Marschner, H. 1995b. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. Inc., San Diago.
Milford, G., Pocock, T., Riley, J. and Messem, A. 1985. An analysis of leaf growth in sugar beet. III. Leaf expansion in field crops. Annals of Applied Biology, 106: 187-203.
Mirzaei, M.R. and Abdollahian-Noghabi, M. 2012. Study of sugar beet growth pattern in Hamedan. Journal of Sugar Beet, 27: 117-134. (In Persian)
Mohsin, A., Ahmad, A., Farooq, M. and Ullah, S. 2014. Influence of zinc application through seed treatment and foliar spray on growth, productivity and grain quality of hybrid maize. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24: 1494-1503.
Montalvo, D., Degryse, F., Da Silva, R., Baird, R. and McLaughlin, M.J. 2016. Agronomic effectiveness of zinc sources as micronutrient fertilizer. Advances in Agronomy, 139: 215-267.
Nadeem, F., Farooq, M., Ullah, A., Rehman, A., Nawaz, A. and Naveed, M. 2020. Influence of Zn nutrition on the productivity, grain quality and grain biofortification of wheat under conventional and conservation rice–wheat cropping systems. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 66: 1042-1057.
Orazizade, M. 1997. Determination of the most appropriate sowing date of seed of three monogerm cultivars of sugar beet for obtains the best plant density per hectare. Final report No. 7934 .Agricultural research center Safiabad of Dezful. (In Persian).
Pidgeon, J.D., Ober, E.S., Qi, A., Clark, C.J., Royal, A. and Jaggard, K.W. 2006. Using multi-environment sugar beet variety trials to screen for drought tolerance. Field Crops Research, 95: 268-279.
Pocock, T., Milford, G. and Armstrong, M. 1990. Storage root quality in sugarbeet in relation to nitrogen uptake. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 115: 355-362.
Rahimi, A., Dovlati, B. and Heydarzadeh, S. 2018. The effect of foliar application of micronutrients on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet Cultivar Latyta (Beta vulgaris L.). Applied Soil Resrarch, 5: 108-121. (In Persian).
Rahimi, A., Moghaddam, S.S., Noorhosseini, S.A. and Hajyzadeh, M. 2019. effects of foliar application of micronutrients on agronomic traits of Beet Cv. Sonja under Dsa (Hot Summer Continental) climatic conditions of naqadeh iran. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 7: 828-832.
Robson, A.D. 2012. Zinc in soils and plants: proceedings of the international symposium on ‘Zinc in Soils and Plants’ held at the University of Western Australia, 27–28 September, 1993: Springer Science & Business Media.
Sadrabadi Haghighi, R., Amirmoradi, S. and Mirshahi, A. 2011. Investigation of growth analysis of conventional and commercial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) varieties at delayed planting date in Chenaran (Khorasan Razavi Province). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 9: 505-513. (In Persian).
Sajjadinia, A., Ershadi, A., Hokmabadi, H., Khayyat, M. and Gholami, M. 2010. Gas exchange activities and relative water content at different fruit growth and developmental stages of on and off cultivated pistachio trees. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 1: 1-6.
Scott, R., Jaggard, K. and Sylvester-Bradley, R. 1994. Resource capture by arable crops. Resource Capture by Crops, 279-302.
Semida, W., Abd El-Mageed, T., Howladar, S., Mohamed, G. and Rady, M. 2015. Response of Solanum melongena L. seedlings grown under saline calcareous soil conditions to a new organo-mineral fertilizer. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 25: 485-493.
Sepehri, A., Modarres Sanavi, A.M., Gharehyazi, B. and Yamini, Y. 2002. Effect of water deficit and different nitrogen rates on growth and development stages, yield and yield component of maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Society of Crops and Plant Breeding Sciences, 4: 184-200. (In Persian).
Shangguan, Z., Shao, M. and Dyckmans, J. 1999. Interaction of osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis in winter wheat under soil drought. Journal of Plant Physiology, 154: 753-758.
Sharma, P.N., Tripathi, A. and Bisht, S.S. 1995. Zinc requirement for stomatal opening in cauliflower. Plant Physiology, 107(3): 751-756.
Sharifi, R. and Syiahkholaki, M.S. 2015. Effects of biofertilizers on growth indices and contribution of dry matter remobilization in wheat grain yield. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 28: 326-343. (In Persian).
Shiri, M., Kamrani, M. and Mehraban, A. 2019. Effect of Fe and Zn spraying on yield and nutrients bioavailability of bread wheat cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 17: 317-326 (In Persian).
Soleymani, A. and Shahrajabian, M.H. 2017. Effects of planting dates and row distance on sugar content, root yield and solar radiation absorption in sugar beet at different plant densities. Romanian Agricultural Research, 34: 145-155.
Soleymani, S. and Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, E. 2016. Utilization of micronutrients in dorotti sugar-beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar. Scientific Journal Management System, 10: 613-628.
Stevens, W., Violett, R., Skalsky, S. and Mesbah, A. 2008. Response of eight sugarbeet varieties to increasing nitrogen application: I. Root, sucrose, and top yield. Journal Sugar Beet Research, 45: 65-83.
Taleghani, D. 2003. Autumn sowing sugar beet extension in Iran. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Iranian Sugar Industries Conference; Mashad, Iran:(In Persian).
Tavallali, V., Rahemi, M., Maftoun, M., Panahi, B., Karimi, S., Ramezanian, A. and Vaezpour, M. 2009. Zinc influence and salt stress on photosynthesis, water relations, and carbonic anhydrase activity in pistachio. Scientia Horticulturae, 123(2): 272-279.
Tognetti, R., Palladino, M., Minnocci, A., Delfine, S. and Alvino, A. 2003. The response of sugar beet to drip and low-pressure sprinkler irrigation in southern Italy. Agricultural Water Management, 60: 135-155.
Wang, H. and Jin, J. 2005. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and lipid peroxidation of maize leaves as affected by zinc deficiency. Photosynthetica, 43(4): 591-596.
Wakeil, E., Nabil, E., Wakeil, N., Saleh, M. and Mohamed, A.H. 2020. Cottage Industry of Biocontrol Agents and Their Applications: Practical Aspects to Deal Biologically with Pests and Stresses Facing Strategic Crops: Springer Nature.
Watson, D. 1958. The dependence of net assimilation rate on leaf-area index. Annals of Botany, 22: 37-54.
Yarnia, M., Benam, M.B.K., Arbat, H.K., Tabrizi, E.F.M. and Hassanpanah, D. 2008. Effects of complete micronutrients and their application method on root yield and sugar content of sugar beet cv. Rassoul. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 6: 341-345.
Yousef Abadi, V. and Abdollahian-Noghabi, M. 2011. Effect of split application of nitrogen fertilizer and harvest time on the root yield and quality characteristics of sugar beet. Iran Journal Crop Sciences, 13: 521-532.
Yousefi, M. 2012. Impact of Zn and Mn foliar application on yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo L.) under two irrigation regimes. International Journal of Agriculture, 26: 102-107.
Zlatev, Z.S. and Yordanov, I.T. 2004. Effects of soil drought on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in bean plants. Bulgarian Journal Plant Physiology, 30: 3-18.