ارزیابی واکنش ارقام کلزا به کاهش طول فصل رشد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان شمالی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بجنورد، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور دستیابی به رویکردی برای کاهش مصرف آب در بخش کشاورزی، مطالعه‌ای دو ساله به‌صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی طرق شهرستان مشهد به اجرا درآمد. تاریخ‌های کشت (سه تاریخ کشت در سال اول و پنج تاریخ کشت در سال دوم) و ارقام کلزا (هایولا308، هایولا401، آرجی‌اس003 و زرفام) به ترتیب در کرت­های اصلی و فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که با کاهش فصل رشد (تاخیر در کشت) عملکرد دانه و اغلب اجزای عملکرد دانه از جمله ارتفاع بوته و وزن هزاردانه ارقام کلزا نسبت به تاریخ کشت‌ پاییزه کاهش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در کشت انتظار و برای رقم هایولا401، 3611 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود که در مقایسه با بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کشت پاییزه برای رقم زرفام (4708 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، 23/3 درصد کاهش نشان داد، گرچه این کاهش معنی‌دار نبود. با این وجود در کشت انتظار و برای بعضی از ارقام زودرس بهاره، پتانسیل عملکرد دانه مناسب به نظر می­رسد به­ویژه اگر منافع ناشی از حذف سه نوبت آبیاری پاییزه نیز مدنظر قرار گیرد. بر مبنای نتایج این آزمایش انتخاب مطلوب برای تاریخ کشت کلزا با حذف آبیاری­های پاییزه، کشت انتظار است. کشت ارقام سازگار با این شرایط نیز اولویت بعدی برای تضمین موفقیت تولید است و در این رابطه ارقام بهاره زودرس نظیر هایولا308 و هایولا401 به علت سازگاری بیشتر به کاهش فصل رشد و عملکرد دانه بالاتر در این شرایط ترجیح دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of response of rapeseed cultivars to reduced growth season

نویسنده [English]

  • Alireza Khodashenas
Assistant professor, North Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Bojnord, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to accessing an approach to reduce of water use in the agriculture, a two-year study was carried out as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Torogh Agricultural Research station in Mashhad. Sowing dates (3 sowing dates in first year and 5 sowing dates in second year) and cultivars (Hayola-308, Hayola-401, RGS003 and Zarfam) of rapeseed were considered as main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that by reducing the growth season (delaying in planting date), seed yield and most of the yield components of rapeseed cultivars such as plant height and 1000-seed weight decreased compared to the autumn sowing date. Maximum seed yield of dormant (entezar) culture for Hayola-401 cultivar was 3611 kg/ha which decreased by 23.3% compared to highest seed yield in autumn planting date for Zarfam cultivar (4708 kg/ha), although this decrease was not significant. However, in dormant culture and for some cultivars, the potential of seed yield seems appropriate, especially if the benefits of removing three autumn irrigations are also considered. Based on the results of this experiment, optimal selection for planting date of rapeseed by eliminating autumn irrigation is dormant culture. Planting compatible cultivars with these conditions is also the next priority to ensure the success of production and in this regard, early spring cultivars such as Hayola-308 and Hayola-401 are preferred to other cultivars due to greater adaptability to reduced growth season and higher seed yield in these conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dormant culture
  • Ground Water Resources
  • growth season
  • production sustainability
  • Rapeseed
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