عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, attention has been paid to forage cactus as a plant resistant to drought conditions and as an obstacle against desertification and diversification of vegetation in low rainfall ranges. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica pads as forage for cattle in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world, especially in periods of time when there is a lack of quality and quantity of fodder in the ranges, is important. Considering the importance of producing fodder plants and improving their quality under the influence of different fertilizer inputs, this experiment aims to investigate the effect of different proportions of biological, chemical and animal fertilizers and their interaction on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forage cactus and determine the optimal fertilizer level for this plant in the city, It was done in Khorram Abad, Lorestan.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of using biological, chemical and livestock fertilizers on Separate and combined tests were carried out on some forage cactus traits during two cropping years (2019 and 2020). The size of each plot was 6 square meters (4 x 1.5) with 4 crop lines and the plant density was 3.33 per each square meter. The main pad for planting was prepared from a three-year base and were prepared and transferred from the research farm affiliated to ICARDA(International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas) in Mehran city, belonging to the Agricultural Research Center of Ilam province. The experiment was conducted in the research farm of Lorestan University's Faculty of Agriculture as a factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with 32 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental factors include biological fertilizer (mycorrhiza) at 2 levels (use and non-use of mycorrhiza), manure at 4 levels(0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare) and nitrogen fertilizer at 4 levels(0, 100, 200 and 300 kilograms per hectare). The qualitative traits included NDF, ADF, CF, ASH and CP, which were measured using a near infrared spectrometer )NIR(, (model DA 7250: manufactured by Perten Sweden) measurements were made at wavelengths between 700 and 2500 nm.
(All the measurements for the quality of traits were done in the central laboratory of Lorestan University).
Quantitative analysis of the data after Bartlett's test was done with SAS software Version (9.4) by compound analysis method for all traits (except wet and dry yield which were one year old), to draw graphs from Excel software and to compare the averages from the test LSD was used at a significant level of 5%.
Results and Discussion
Based on the composite variance analysis table in this research, the percentage of crude protein, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber, freah and dry yield was influenced by the use of manure and nitrogen fertilizer, and the simple effect and the interaction effect of the combined use of different levels of manure and nitrogen fertilizer on this trait were also significant at the level of one percent.
The highest fresh forage yield and dry yield were obtained in the treatment of combined use of 300 kg of nitrogen fertilizer + 30 tons per hectare of manure in comparison with the control treatment (no use of fertilizer) with the lowest amount. The percentage of crude protein and fodder ash increased by 83.05% and 88.26% respectively in this treatment, and the percentage of traits reducing the quality of fodder, including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber showed the highest decrease compared to the control treatment. Showed. Based on the results of the present research, the combined use of manure and chemical fertilizers led to the improvement of quantitative and qualitative traits in forage cactus. Non significant difference was observed between treatments using mycorrhiza and not using it.
The best result was obtained in the M3N3 treatment and then in the M3N2, M2N2 and M2N3 treatments, considering that no significant difference was observed between the characteristics of these treatments, the M2N2 treatment seems to be economically more economical and environmentally sustainable and is recommended. As it was evident in the test results, no significant difference was observed between the treatments using Mycorrhizal biofertilizer and not using this fertilizer. It seems that the beneficial effects of manure last longer compared to chemical fertilizers, and also some organic matter may remain in the soil over the years and its nutrients gradually enter the soil, and less damage is caused by using it. It enters the environment.
According to the results of this research, the integrated application of manure and nitrogen fertilizer has improved the quantitative and qualitative traits in forage cactus, non significant difference was observed between the treatments of using bio-fertilizer and not using bio-fertilizer therefore, it is recommended that the study regarding the use of mycorrhizal fungi in multi-year and long-term supplementary experiments be investigated further. The effect of year was significant only on the trait of plant height and it did not show significant results in other traits. The combination of manure and chemical fertilizer can increase vegetative growth and forage yield, because in the integrated system, the presence of some chemical fertilizer at the beginning of growth compensates for the lack of elements in the root environment, and then during the growth period, animal fertilizers release the elements required by the plant increasing the yield of fodder in the plant.
Key words: integrated using of biofertilizers, manure and nitrogen fertilizers, pad (juicy fleshy stem) of cactus, protein percentage, wet and dry yield.