عنوان مقاله [English]
Agriculture is critical to a family's livelihood and the development of the national economy. Food production and environmental conditions are largely determined by agricultural practises. Emergy analysis allows for a comprehensive comparison of different production systems by quantifying environmental and economic input flow to the same unit of solar emjoule (sej). Emergy structure evaluation and analysis of emergy indices were used to investigate the ecological sustainability of wheat, barley, alfalfa, watermelon, and melon crop production systems in Hirmand City, Sistan and Baluchestan Province. A questionnaire and field measurements from smallholder agricultural systems in Hirmand in 2020 provided the data needed for this study. In wheat, barley, alfalfa, watermelon, and melon production systems, free renewable and non-renewable currents accounted for 46.77, 45.87, 64.39, 63.94, and 62.40 percent of total input emergy, respectively. Because of the high percentage of free domestic inputs, the majority of study farms are non-industrial systems managed in a semi-traditional, low-input manner. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) values revealed that the alfalfa production system has a higher ecological sustainability than the other study systems. The large share of input energy related to free environmental inputs and economic renewable resources was the main reason for the system's greater sustainability. A high emergy yield ratio (EYR), less energy expended in the production of each output unit, and higher productivity of all production factors all point to the alfalfa production system having a greater comparative advantage.