تأثیر پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

کاربرد مواد پلیمری سوپرجاذب می‌تواند سبب جلوگیری از کاهش تولید در برخی گیاهان زراعی تحت شرایط کم‌آبی گردد. به‌منظور بررسی اثر مصرف پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار در مزرعه‌ شخصی واقع در کیلومتر 20 شهرستان سبزوار در سال 93-1392 انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی، دور آبیاری (12 و 24 روز) و مقادیر مختلف سوپرجاذب (0، 30، 60، 90 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد دانه در طبق، درصد بذور پوک، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد اقتصادی و عملکرد بیولوژیک به‌صورت معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر دور آبیاری قرار گرفت. افزایش دور آبیاری از 12 روز به 24 روز سبب کاهش 26/3 درصدی ارتفاع گیاه، 39/5 درصدی تعداد دانه در طبق، 17/9 درصدی وزن هزار دانه، 13/2 درصدی عملکرد اقتصادی و 17/9 درصدی عملکرد بیولوژیک شد. بالاترین عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد در مصرف خاکی 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب و کمترین آن در تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. اگرچه واکنش عملکرد به مصرف سوپرجاذب ‌ها در دور آبیاری 12 روزه بیشتر بود، اما مصرف پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب سبب کاهش اثرات منفی تنش خشکی شد. در دور آبیاری 12 روزه مصرف 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب و در دور آبیاری 24 روزه مصرف 30 کیلوگرم در هکتارسبب تولید حداکثر درآمد خالص شد. در مجموع، بالاترین عملکرد دانه و درآمد اقتصادی با مصرف 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و دور آبیاری 12 روز به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of super absorbent polymer on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Yaghobzadeh 1
  • Mohammad Armin 2
  • Matin jamimoeini 2
1 MSc graduate of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The application of superabsorbent polymeric materials may prevent yield reduction of some crops under drought stress conditions. To investigate the effect of adsorbent polymer consumption on yield and yield components of sunflower under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications in a farm located 20 km away from Sabzevar during 2013-2014. Factors were irrigation regimes (12-day and 24-day intervals) as main plot and different amount of super absorbent polymer (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) as subplot. The results showed that plant height, number of seeds per head, percentage of empty seeds, 100-seed weight, economic yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation intervals. Increasing the irrigation interval reduced plant height by 26.3%, number of seeds per head by 39.5%, 100-seed weight by 17.9%, economic yield by 31.2% and biological yield by 17.9%. The highest yield and yield components were obtained at application of 120 kg ha-1 superabsorbent polymer and the lowest at control treatment. Although the yield response to the use of superabsorbent polymer was higher in the 12-day irrigation interval, use of superabsorbent polymer reduced the negative effects of drought stress. In 12-day irrigation interval, consumption of 120 kg ha-1 absorbent polymer and in the 24-day irrigation interval, consumption of 30 kg ha-1 absorbent polymer produced the maximum net income. In total, the highest grain yield and economic income were obtained at application of 120 kg ha-1 superabsorbent and 12-day irrigation interval.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Irrigation regime
  • Oil Plants
  • Super absorbent polymer
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