ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی ژنوتیپ های جو بهاره از لحاظ برخی صفات فنولوژیکی و موفولوژیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

3 موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور

10.22034/csrar.2022.343913.1242

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی ژنوتیپ‌های جو بهاره، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 27 ژنوتیپ در چهار تکرار، در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم شهرستان دیواندره انجام گرفت. صفات ارتفاع بوته، تاریخ پنجه‌دهی، تاریخ ساقه-دهی، عرض برگ پرچم، طول برگ پرچم، طول ریشک، طول سنبله، فاصله میانگره، قطر در محل گره، قطر در محل میانگره، تاریخ گلدهی، مرحله خمیری، مرحله شیری، وزن ریشک، عملکرد دانه تک بوته، بیوماس تک بوته، بیوماس کل، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت، تعدادساقه بارور، تعداد گلچه درسنبله، تعداد دانه درسنبله، تعداد برگ در زمان ظهور سنبله، تاریخ جوانه‌زنی، تاریخ رسیدگی، تعداد دانه در بوته، تاریخ ظهور خوشه و عملکرد کل دانه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. اختلاف بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه، در اکثر صفات غیر از تاریخ گلدهی معنی‌دار بود که نشان دهنده تنوع بالا بین ژنوتیپ‌های جو بهاره بود. تجزیه خوشه‌ای براساس صفات، ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه را در سه گروه جای داد. ژنوتیپ شماره یک در خوشه اول جای گرفت، خوشه دوم شامل ژنوتیپ‌های26، 25، 27، 22، 14، 13بود و بقیه ژنوتیپ‌ها در خوشه سوم قرار گرفتند. با توجه به میانگین-ها، ژنوتیپ‌های کلاستر سوم می‌تواند در برنامه‌های بهنژادی برای عملکرد دانه به کار رود. در تجزیه به مولفه‌های اصلی، سه مولفه اصلی اول، 88/52 درصد از تنوع کل را توجیه کردند. این مقادیر برای مولفه‌های دوم و سوم به ترتیب 23/17 و 15/9 درصد بود. بر اساس نتایج، مولفه اول را می‌توان مولفه عملکرد دانه و بیوماس کل نام‌گذاری کرد. از این مولفه می‌توان در امر گزینش برای ژنوتیپ‌های جو بهاره استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of genetic diversity of spring barley genotypes with respect to some phenological and morphological traits

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Modarresi 1
  • Alireza Pourmohammad 2
  • Behzad Sadeghzadeh 3
1 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran
2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran
3 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Barley (Hordeum vulgare .L) is the fourth most important crop in the world after rice, wheat and corn, which is commonly used as human food, malt and animal feed. Estimation of genetic diversity in crops has a very important role in promoting breeding programs and conservation of genetic resources, which is possible through the study of pedigrees, morphological and biological traits, and molecular markers. According to the above, the objectives of this study include identifying superior barley genotypes in terms of phenological and morphological traits, grouping them using cluster analysis and reducing the measured traits using principal component analysis.



Materials and Methods

In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of spring barley genotypes using some phenological and morphological traits, an experiment carried out based on a randomized complete block design with 27 genotypes in four replications, at Divanreh Drayland Agricultural Research Station. In this study, plant height, tillering date, shooting date, flag leaf width, flag leaf length, awn length, spike length, internode length, diameter at node location, diameter at internode location, flowering date, dough stage, milk stage, rootlet weight, grain yield per plant, biomass per plant, total biomass, 1000 grains weight, harvest index, number of fertile stems, number of floret per spike, number of grains per spike, number of leaves at spike emergence, germination date, maturity date, number of grains per plant, spike emergence date and total grain yield were evaluated. Analysis of variance was performed and the means were compared by the method of least significant differences (LSD). The relationship between the studied traits was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the data. Using cluster analysis, the studied genotypes were grouped. MSTATC and SPSS softwares were used to perform data analysis.



Results and Discussion

Differences between studied genotypes were significant in most traits with the exception of flowering date, indicating high diversity between spring barley genotypes. Total grain yield, number of fertile shoots, main spike length, harvest index and flag leaf length had had higher heritability than other traits. Due to their high heritability, these traits can be used in segregating generations for indirect selection for grain yield. Path analysis (by stepwise regression) showed that number of grains per plant and 1000-grains weight had a direct and high effect on total grain yield, but the direct effect of awn weight on grain yield was less than these two traits. Therefore, grain number per plant and 1000-grains weight were the most important components of grain yield in spring barley. The cluster analysis based on the evaluated traits, divided the studied genotypes into three groups. Genotype 1 was located in the first cluster, second cluster consisted of genotypes 26, 25, 27, 22, 14, 13 and the rest of the genotypes were in the third cluster. In principal component analysis, the first three principal components explained 52.88% of the total variability. These values were 17.23% and 9.15% for the second and third components, respectively. In the first component, the traits of booting date (0.884), number of grains per spike (0.855), flowering date (0.776), flag leaf width (0.883) had positive coefficients and high values. In the second component, plant height (0.885), shooting date (0.880), flag leaf length (0.873) had a large positive coefficient and 1000 grains weight (-0.387) and plant weight (-0.377) had high negative coefficients. The second component can be nominated as the number of leaves. In the third component, cluster emergence date (0.586), milk stage (0.739) and number of grains per plant (0.570) had high coefficients. The third component can be named traits related to maturity.



Conclusion

According to the means, genotypes cluster number three can be used in breeding programs for grain yield. Based on the results, the first component be nominated as the component of grain yield and total biomass. This component can be used in the selection of spring barley genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Grain Yield
  • Principal Components Analysis

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 24 مرداد 1401
  • تاریخ دریافت: 07 خرداد 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 26 تیر 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 24 مرداد 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 24 مرداد 1401