ارزیابی تنوع در میزان و ترکیبات تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس اکوتیپ‌های مختلف رازیانه (.Foeniculum vulgare Mill)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) یک گیاه دارویی و صنعتی با کاربردهای مختلف غذایی و دارویی است. در این مطالعه درصد اسانس برگ و ترکیب­های آن در 11 اکوتیپ رازیانه جمع­آوری شده از مناطق مختلف جغرافیایی ایران مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. درصد اسانس برگ­های رازیانه از 0/47 درصد (اکوتیپ خاش) تا 1/58 درصد (اکوتیپ ساری) متغیر بود. درصد اسانس برگ همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری با درصد آلفاپینن (*0/72=r)، سابینن (*0/61=r)، استات فنچیل درونی (*0/64=r)، فنچون (*0/70=r) و جرماکرون D  (*0/73=r)  داشت. اصلی ­ترین ترکیب موجود در اسانس برگ ترانس آنتول، لیمونن و فنچون بودند. ترانس آنتول از 30/36درصد (اکوتیپ ساری) تا 56/67 درصد (اکوتیپ قزوین) متغیر بود و با درصد آلفاپینن و جرماکرون D همبستگی منفی داشت. مقدار لیمونن از 15/48درصد (اکوتیپ فسا) تا 22/79درصد (اکوتیپ محلات) و مقدار فنچون از 1/34 درصد (اکوتیپ سردشت) تا 9/72 درصد (اکوتیپ فسا) متغیر بود. تجزیه به عامل­ها نشان داد که شش عامل اصلی و مستقل 89/91 درصد از تغییرات کل داده­ها را توجیه نمودند. تجزیه خوشه‌ای با استفاده از روش وارد با احتمال صحت 100 درصد اکوتیپ­ های مورد بررسی را در پنج خوشه مجزا گروه­بندی کرد. بنابراین پیشنهاد می­شود که در برنامه­ های اصلاحی آینده از طریق تلاقی بین اکوتیپ­ های برتر و آزمون نتاج و انتخاب اکوتیپ­ های برتر، نسبت به تولید اکوتیپ­ های دارای کیفیت مطلوب اسانس اقدام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of diversity in the amount and composition of essential oils of different fennel ecotypes (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Riahinia 1
  • Maryam Danesh Gilevaei 2
1 Department of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Payame Noor University, Iran
2 Ph.D. Graduate, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a medicinal and industrial plant that has a variety of culinary and therapeutic purposes. The leaf essential oil percentage and compositions of 11 fennel ecotypes obtained from various geographical regions of Iran were evaluated in this study. The essential oil proportion of fennel leaves ranged from 0.47 (Khash ecotype) to 1.58% (Sari ecotype). The amount of essential oil and the percentage of α-pinene (r = 0.72*), sabinene (r = 0.61*), endo-fenchyl acetate (r = 0.64*), fenchone (r = 0.70*), and germacrene D (r = 0.73*) correlated positively and significantly. The primary constituents of the leaf essential oil were trans-anethole, limonene, and fenchone. Trans-anethole concentrations ranged from 30.36% (Sari ecotype) to 56.67% (Qazvin ecotype) and correlated negatively with -Pinene and Germacrene D. The amount of limonene ranged from 15.48% (Fasa ecotype) to 22.79% (Mahalat ecotype), and the level of fenchon ranged from 1.34% (Sardasht ecotype) to 9.72% (Fasa ecotype). Six independent and major factors explained 89.91% of the total variance in all ecotypes, according to factor analysis. Ward method cluster analysis correctly categorized five separate groups for studied ecotypes with 100% of original grouped cases. As a result, it is advised that in future breeding operations, superior ecotypes should be crossed with progeny tests and superior ecotypes should be selected to develop ecotypes with high essential oil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • medicinal plants
  • Monoterpenes
  • Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon
  • volatile oil
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