تغییرات میزان اسانس و عملکرد گیاه دارویی بادرشبو (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) تحت تاثیر تاریخ کاشت و کود نیتروژن در منطقه خوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد تکنولوژی بذر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد خوی، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوی، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و کود نیتروژن، بر تعدادی از خصوصیات کمی و کیفی بادرشبو، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ای تحقیقاتی واقع در منطقه فیرورق از توابع شهرستان خوی در سال‌ 1392 اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل سه تاریخ کاشت (21 اردیبهشت، 15 خرداد و 31 خرداد) و چهار مقدار نیتروژن (صفر، 150، 225 و 300 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت (به جز تعداد شاخه گل‌دهنده) تأثیر معنی‌داری بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه داشت. بیشترین بازده اسانس (0/38 درصد)، عملکرد اسانس (11/83کیلو‌گرم در هکتار) و وزن هزار دانه (2/09 گرم) در تاریخ کاشت 15 خرداد بدست آمد. کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد تعداد شاخه گل‌دهنده، عملکرد ماده خشک و میزان اسانس را افزایش داد، در حالیکه کاربرد 300 کیلو‌گرم نیتروژن در هکتار سبب کاهش معنی­دار میزان و عملکرد اسانس، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد بذر گردید. کاربرد 150 کیلو‌گرم نیتروژن در هکتار در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد عملکرد اسانس را 80 درصد افزایش داد و بیشترین عملکرد اسانس در تاریخ کاشت 15 خرداد مشاهده شد. کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار در تاریخ کاشت 15 خرداد بدلیل استفاده بهینه از رطوبت خاک و شرایط دمایی مناسب علاوه بر کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی و حرکت به سمت کشاورزی پایدار باعث بهبود صفات کمی و کیفی گیاه بادرشبو در شرایط آب و هوایی خوی شد. بنابراین این تیمار به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in essential oil content and plant yield of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) affected by sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer in Khoy region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ziba Zeynali charkandi 1
  • Mohsen Roshdi 2
  • Saeed Yousefzadeh 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Seed Technology, Islamic Azad University, Khoy Branch, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University Khoy Branch, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on some quantitative and qualitative traits of dragonhead, a field study was conducted as factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design layout with three replications in Khoy, Firuraq during 2013. Factors consisted of three sowing dates (May 11, June 5 and June 21) and four levels of nitrogen (without nitrogen (control), 150, 225 and 300 Kg.ha-1). Results indicated that sowing date had significant effect on all of the studied traits (except of number of flowering branch). The maximum essential oil content (0.38 percent), essential oil yield (11.83 Kg.ha-1) and 1000 seed weight (2.09 g) were gained on June 5. The use of 150 nitrogen fertilizer per hectare increased number of flowering branch, dry matter yield and essential oil content in compare to control treatment While application of highest level of nitrogen (300 Kg ha-1) significantly decreased essential oil content as well as essential oil yield and seed yield. Application of 150 Kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare increased essential oil yield by 80 percent in compare to control treatment and maximum essential oil yield observed at June 5. Plants grown on May 11 produced the highest seed yield (1542 Kg.ha-1). Application of 150 Kg.ha-1 nitrogen on June 5 due to optimum usage of soil humid and temperature condition besides of decrease usage of chemical fertilizer and movement towards sustainable agriculture lead to improving quantitative and qualitative yield of dragonhead in studied climatic conditions and thus, this treatment is introduced as the best treatment combination.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter Yield
  • Fertilizer regime
  • medicinal plants
  • Qualitative traits
  • Secondary metabolites
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