ارزیابی شاخص هیدرومدول آبیاری به‌منظور کاهش تأثیر تنش خشکی و مصرف بهینه آب در گیاهان عمده الگوی کشت اراضی دشت هنام

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات آبیاری و فیزیک خاک، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

بهره‌برداری پایدار از منابع آب، شناخت شرایط موجود، نحوه تخصیص و بهره‌برداری از آب امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر است. به­­همین منظور، الگوی کشت و منابع آبی حدود 913 هکتار از اراضی آبی دشت هنام الشتر استان لرستان در سال 1396 با استفاده از پیمایش زمینی و تصاویر ماهواره­ای شناسایی شدند. همچنین، واحدهای هم­آب تفکیک و هیدرومدول آبیاری الگوی کشت هر واحد بر اساس راندمان آبیاری سطحی منطقه تعیین و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج به­دست آمده از الگوی کشت نشان داد که گیاهان غالب منطقه را گندم و جو (444 هکتار)، یونجه و شبدر (153 هکتار) و چغندرقند (40 هکتار) تشکیل می­دهند. میانگین اطلاعات 15 ساله نشان داد که گیاهان یونجه و جو با حدود 11000 و 3900 متر مکعب آب در هکتار به­ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین نیاز آبیاری را در بین گیاهان الگوی کشت دارا بودند. تعداد 19 واحد هم­­آب تفکیک شد که متوسط سالانه هیدرومدول آبیاری بر اساس نیاز آبی گیاهان در این اراضی 1/26 لیتر بر ثانیه در هکتار تعیین شد. همچنین، بر اساس برآورد حجم آب تحویلی و متوسط راندمان کاربرد آبیاری منطقه (30 درصد)، متوسط شاخص هیدرومدول واحدهای 19 ­گانه به­مقدار 0/86 لیتر بر ثانیه در هکتار تعیین شد. نتایج نشان دادند تعداد 12 واحد از واحدهای 19 گانه هم­آب، حجم آب تخصیص یافته آن بیشتر از هیدرومدول تعیین شده و در 7 واحد آن کمتر از هیدرومدول آبیاری است. با توجه به هیدرومدول آبیاری تعیین شده و حجم آب مصرفی گیاهان الگوی کشت، امکان افزایش عملکرد و کاهش تأثیر تنش خشکی ناشی از کم­آبیاری زیرحوضه فراهم شده و کارایی مصرف آب ارتقاء می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of irrigation hydro-module of major plants of cropping pattern to reduce water stress and optimize agricultural water consumption in Honam sub-catchment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sina Mallah 1
  • Saeed Ghalebi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Emdad 1
  • Mehdi Panahi 2
1 Soil Physics and Irrigation Department, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Alborz, Iran
2 Department of Soil and Water, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Educational Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

For sustainable water resources utilization, knowledge of the existing conditions as well as a proper method to allocate and exploit water is inevitable. To this end, water resources and cropping pattern of Honam sub-catchment in Karkheh River Basin, Iran, were geographically identified and then digitized over 913.8 ha of irrigated lands, during 2017-2018 growing season using field survey and satellite imagery. Also, irrigation homogenous units were separated and hydro-module of cropping pattern was determined per unit according to surface irrigation application efficiency of the study area. The results of the cropping pattern showed that the areas under the major crops including wheat and barley, alfalfa and clover, and sugar beet were 444, 153, and 40 ha, respectively. Alfalfa and barely had the highest and lowest irrigation requirement among the major crops with 11910 and 3000 m3.ha-1, respectively. Nineteen irrigation homogenous units were delineated, and their mean annual hydro-module was determined as 1.26 L.s-1.ha-1. Meanwhile, mean hydro-module of nineteen homogenous units was obtained as 0.86 L.s-1.ha-1 according toestimated volume of water and average of application efficiency (30%) in the study area. The results also indicated that the allocated water for 12 out of 19 homogenous units was more than the determined hydro-module, and for the remaining 7 units it was less. It can be concluded that it is feasible to reduce drought stress and improve yield and water productivity based on determined hydro module and water consumption volume of subcatchment cropping pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural water consumption
  • Irrigation stress
  • Landuse planning
  • Water justice
  • Watershed Management
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