ارزیابی شاخص‌های رقابتی در کشت مخلوط چای ترش- ماش در نظام‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی شاخص‌های رقابتی و عملکرد دو گونه چای ترش و ماش در کشت مخلوط، آزمایشی در مزرعه آموزشی و تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل، به‌صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های­ کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی در سه سطح شامل خاک‌ورزی بدون شخم، شخم کاهش‌یافته (دیسک)، شخم مرسوم (گاوآهن و دیسک) و عامل فرعی نسبت­های کشت مخلوط در پنج سطح شامل کشت خالص چای ترش، کشت خالص ماش،50 درصد چای ترش  بعلاوه 50 درصد ماش، 75 درصد چای ترش بعلاوه 25 ماش، 25 درصد چای ترش  بعلاوه 75 درصد ماش در نظر گرفته شد. شاخص‌های مورد بررسی در این آزمایش شامل نسبت برابری زمین؛ شاخص رقابت، شاخص غالبیت و تزاحم نسبی بودند. بیشترین تزاحم نسبی از سیستم بدون خاک­ورزی (02/3) و کمترین تزاحم نسبی چای ترش از سیستم خاک­ورزی مرسوم (51/2) به دست آمد. بیشترین شاخص تزاحم نسبی مربوط به کشت مخلوط 75 درصد ماش  بعلاوه 25 درصد چای ترش (63/4) بدست آمد. در بین سیستم‌های مختلف خاک­ورزی حداکثر ضریب غالبیت چای ترش از سیستم بدون شخم (79/0) به دست آمد. مقایسه برهم‌کنش  سیستم خاک‌ورزی در نسبت‌های مختلف کشت مخلوط نشان داد که بیشترین شاخص غالبیت برای چای ترش از سیستم بدون خاک­ورزی و کشت مخلوط 75 درصد ماش بعلاوه  25درصد چای ترش (69/1) به دست آمد.  بالاترین مقدار نسبت برابری زمین در تیمار 75 درصد ماش بعلاوه 25درصد چای ترش حاصل گردید. با اندازه‌گیری سایر شاخص­های رقابتی چای ترش با عملکرد اقتصادی بیشتر از قابلیت رقابت بیشتری نسبت به ماش برخوردار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of competitive indices in roselle- mung bean intercropping under various tillage systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolvahad Hodiani mehr 1
  • Mehdi Dahmardeh 2
  • Issa Khammari 2
  • Mohammad reza Asgharipoor 2
1 Msc student of Agro ecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Department of agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

To examine the intercropping system of roselle with mung bean, a field experiment was carried out at the research farm of the University of Zabol. Split plot experiment performed on the basis of an RCBD with three replications. The main plot consisted of three tillage systems (no-till, minimum and conventional tillage) and the subplot was 5 planting ratios (sole culture of roselle and mung bean, 50% roselle + 50% mung bean, 25% roselle + 75% mung bean, 75% roselle + 25% mung bean). The parameters studied in this experiment included land equivalent ratio (LER), relative crowding coefficient (RCC), completive index and dominance index. The highest RCC was obtained at no-till (3.02) and the lowest RCC was obtained in conventional tillage (2.51). The highest RCC was obtained at 25% roselle + 75% mung bean (4.63). Among different tillage systems, the greatest dominance index of roselle was obtained from the no-till system (0.79). The interaction of tillage systems and different ratios of intercropping showed that the highest dominance index for roselle was obtained from no-till and intercropping of 75% mung bean + 25% roselle (1.69). The highest LER was obtained in plants grown at 75% mung bean + 25% roselle. Comparison of competitive indices of intercropping of roselle and mung bean showed that roselle with higher economic yield is more competitive than mung bean.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitive index
  • Dominance index
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
  • Relative Crowding Coefficient
Agegnehu, G., Ghizam, A. and Sinebo, W. 2007. Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy, 25: 202-207.
Banik, M.,  Sarkar, B.K. and  Ghose, S.S. 2006.  Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: Advantages and weed smothering. European Journal of Agronomy. 24: 325-332.
Beheshti, S.A. and Soltaniyan, B. 2012. Maintain internal and external competition in a row intercropping sorghum and beans by performance. Journal of Agricultural Seed and Plant, 28(1): 1-17.
Bhatti, I.H., Ahmad, R., Jabbar, A., Nazir, M.S. and Mahmood, T. 2006. Competitive behavior of component crops in different sesame legume intercropping systems. International Journal Agriculture Biology, 8: 165–167
Bolie, F., Rubio, R., Rouanet, J.L., Morales, A. and RoJas, C. 2006. Effects of tillage systems on soil characteristics, glomalin and mycorrhizal propagules in chilean ultiSol. Soil and Tillage Research, 8: 253-261.
Dabbagh Mohammadi Nassab, A., Amonb, T. and Kaula, H.P. 2011. Competition and yield in intercrops of maize and sunflower for biogas. Industrial Crops and Products, 34: 1203-1211.
Dahmardeh, M. 2010. The effect of Eco-physiological aspects of intercropping of maize and cowpea on quantity and quality of forage maize K.S.C 704. Ph.D. Thesis of Agronomy. Faculty of Agriculture, University of  Zabol. 196 P. (In Persian).
Eslami khalili, F., Allah pirdashti , H. and Motaghiyan, A. 2011. Evaluate the performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in different concentrations and combinations of intercropping through competitive index. Journal Agriculture, 3(1): 94-105. (In Persian)
Ganjali, H.M., Kamali Deljoo, A., Azizian Shermeh, O. and Lakizahi, M. 2017. Growth and yield characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) affected by different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in Saravan, Iran. Agroecology Journal, 13(1): 29-37. (In Persian).
Ghanbari, A. 2000. Intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba) as a low-input forage. PhD thesis. Wye Collage University of London. (In Persian).
Hauggard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P. and Jenson, E.S. 2001. Interspecific competition, N use and interference with weeds in pea-barley intercropping. Field Crops Research, 70:101-109.
Hosseni, S.M., Mazaheri, D., Jahansooz, M.R. and Yazdi samadi, B. 2003. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the yield of millet and cowpea in intercropping. Research and Development in Agriculture and Horticulture, 16(59): 60-67. (In Persian).
Javanshir, A., Dabagh Mohamadi Nasab, A., Hamidi, A. and Gholipoor, M. 2000. Ecology intercropping (Translation). First Edition. Press Mashhad University Jihad. 222 P. (In Persian).
Jensen, E.S. 1996. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea–barley Intercrops. Plant and Soil, 182(1): 25–38.
Motaghiyan, A., Pirdashti, H.A., Akbarpoor, W., Sarajpoor, G.H., Yaghobi, M. and Shariatnejad, S. 2013. Evaluate the performance of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) intercropping in various combinations through competitive index. Journal of Agri  ecology, 5(3): 243-254. (In Persian).
Mosadeghi, M.R., Afioni, M. and Hemat, A. 2001. Effect of two tillage systems on same properties of physical soil in North Carolina America and compare it with the situation in Iran. Seventh Congress of Soil Science. pp: 130-132.. (In Persian).
Lamei Heravani, J. 2012. Technical and economic evaluation of green pea intercropping with barley and triticale dry conditions in Zanjan. Production of crops and garden, 2(4): 93-102. (In Persian).
Pirzad, A., Javanshir, A., Aleyari, H., Moghadam, M. and Shakiba, M. 2002. Evaluation and competitiveness of intercropping corn and soybean. Journal of Agricultural Science, 12(2): 89-95. (In Persian).
Rahimizadeh, M., Madani, H., Rezadoost, S., Mehraban, A. and Marjani, A. 2007. Energy analysis in ecological agricultural systems and strategies to increase energy efficiency. Sixth National Conference on Energy. pp: 1-12.
Thobatsi, T. 2009. Growth and yield responses of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in an intercropping system. MSc Thesis. University of Pretoria, 149 P.
Tohidinejhad, A., Mazaheri, D., Koocheki, A. and Ghalavand, A. 2004. Effect of intercropping maize and sunflower. Research and Development in Agriculture and Horticulture, 64: 34-45.
Sarlak, S.H. and Aghaalikhani, M. 2009. The effect of plant density and mixing ratio on the performance of intercropping of sweet corn (Zea mays L.var Saccharata) and green gram (Vigna radiate L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences,  11(4): 367-380.
Shruthi, V., Ramachandra, C., Daykumar, N., Sharanagouda, H., Nagaraj, N., and Kurubar, A. 2016. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l.) as a source of natural colour: A review. Plant Archives, 16)2(: 515-522.
Sirosmehr, A., Javanshir, A., Rahimzadeh Khoie, F. and Moghadam, M. 2003. Intercropping of millet and vetch crop. Desert Journal, 8(2): 250-263.
Sirosmehr, A., Dabagh Mohamadi Nasab, A., Jvanshir, A., Rahimzadeh Khoei, F., Moghadam, M., Banaie Khosroghi, A. and Tabata Vakili, H. 2007. Evaluation of competition and ground cover in commen vetch (Vicia saliva L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) intercropping.  Journal of Agricultural Science, 16(4): 103-113. (In Persian).
Vandermeer, J.H. 1989. The Ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press.
Zand, B. and Ghafari Khaligh, H. 2002. The possibility of intercropping cowpea grain sorghum under different cropping patterns. Abstracts of the Seventh Congress of Crop Sciences. 166 P.
Zhang, G., Yang, Z. and Dong, S.H. 2011. Inter specific competitiveness affects the total biomass yield in an alfalfa and corn intercropping system. Field Crops Research, 124: 66–73.