اثر تنش خشکی در مراحل مختلف رشد بر انتقال مجدد مواد ذخیره‌ای در ژنوتیپ‌های سورگوم دانه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان جنوبی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بیرجند، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد دانه و پارامترهای دخیل در انتقال مجدد مواد ذخیره‌ای در ژنوتیپ‌های سورگوم دانه‌ای، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1393 در مزرعه مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان جنوبی اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی شامل آبیاری نرمال (شاهد)، قطع آبیاری در مرحله رشد رویشی (مرحله رویت آخرین برگ به‌صورت لوله‌ای) و قطع آبیاری در مرحله رشد زایشی (50 درصد بوته‌ها در مرحله آغاز گلدهی) و فاکتور فرعی شامل ژنوتیپ‌های KGS29،MGS2 ،KGS33 ، سپیده، KGFS27،MGS5 ،KGFS5 ،KGFS17، KGFS13 و KGFS30 بودند. نتایج نشان داد تنش خشکی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در پانیکول داشته و سبب کاهش آنها گردید. میزان کاهش عملکرد دانه در بالاترین سطح تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری در مرحله رشد رویشی) نسبت به تیمار شاهد معادل 42 درصد بود. ژنوتیپ KGFS13دارای بالاترین عملکرد دانه بود. اثر تنش خشکی بر پارامترهای ARDM (میزان مواد ذخیره‌ای انتقال‌یافته) و %REP  (سهم دانه از انتقال مجدد مواد ذخیره‌ای) در سطح احتمال 5 درصد معنی‌دار گردید و این اثر در مورد %REE (بازدهی انتقال مجدد) معنی‌دار نشد ولی هر سه پارامتر با اعمال تنش رطوبتی و افزایش شدت تنش خشکی افزایش چشمگیری نشان دادند. به‌طورکلی می‌توان گفت که فرایند انتقال مجدد به‌عنوان یکی از مکانیزم های مطلوب و انتخابی در ارقام و ژنوتیپ های سورگوم به‌ویژه در شرایط مواجهه با تنش خشکی قلمداد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought stress at different growth stages on dry matter remobilization in grain sorghum genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Azarinasrabad 1
  • Seyed Mohsen Mousavinik 2
  • Mohammad Galavi 2
  • Seyyed Ali Reza Beheshti 3
  • Alireza Siroosmehr 2
1 Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, South Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Birjand, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 3Horticulture crops Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of water stress on grain yield and its components and parameters of dry matter remobilization in sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L.), a field experiment as a split plot design was carried out with three replications in 2014 at the research farm of the southern Khorasan Agriculture and natural resources research and education center. Main factors including normal irrigation (control), irrigation cut off in vegetative growth stage (emergence of terminal leaf as rolled) and irrigation cut off in generative growth stage (50% of plants in start of flowering) and genotypes including KGS29, MGS2, Sepideh, KGFS27, MGS5, KGFS5, KGFS17, KGFS13 and KGFS30 were as sub factors. Results showed that water stress had significantly effect on grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000 seed weight, seed number per panicle and caused to decrement of them. The grain yield reduction was about 42% at the highest level of water stress (irrigation cut off in vegetative growth stage) in comparison with the control. The genotype KGFS13 had the highest grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. The effect of water stress was significant on ARDM (Amount of Remobilized Dry Matter) and %REP (Remobilization Percentage) at %5 probability level and this effect was not significant on %REE but each of those parameters were highly increased with water stress inducing and stress severity increasing. Generally, remobilization process can be considered as one of the optimal and selective mechanisms in sorghum cultivars and genotypes, especially in terms of drought stress condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Generative growth
  • Irrigation cut off
  • Remobilization Efficiency
  • sorghum
  • Yield
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